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2019 - KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 channels regulate the interactions between fibroblast-like synoviocytes and T lymphocytes during rheumatoid arthritis

icon pap   Port-a-Patch publication in Arthritis Research & Therapy (2019)

Authors:
Tanner M.R., Pennington M.W., Chauhan S.S., Laragione T., Gulko P.S., Beeton C.

Journal:
Arthritis Research & Therapy (2019) 21:6


Abstract:

Background:
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and CCR7- effector memory T (TEM) cells are two of the major cell types implicated in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In particular, FLS become highly invasive, whereas TEM cells proliferate and secrete proinflammatory cytokines, during RA. FLS and T cells may also interact and influence each other's phenotypes. Inhibition of the pathogenic phenotypes of both FLS and TEM cells can be accomplished by selectively blocking the predominant potassium channels that they upregulate during RA: KCa1.1 (BK, Slo1, MaxiK, KCNMA1) upregulated by FLS and Kv1.3 (KCNA3) upregulated by activated TEM cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 in regulating the interactions between FLS and TEM cells and determined if combination therapies of KCa1.1- and Kv1.3-selective blockers are more efficacious than monotherapies in ameliorating disease in rat models of RA.

Methods:
We used in vitro functional assays to assess the effects of selective KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 channel inhibitors on the interactions of FLS isolated from rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) with syngeneic TEM cells. We also used flow cytometric analyses to determine the effects of KCa1.1 blockers on the expression of proteins used for antigen presentation on CIA-FLS. Finally, we used the CIA and pristane-induced arthritis models to determine the efficacy of combinatorial therapies of KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 blockers in reducing disease severity compared with monotherapies.

Results:
We show that the interactions of FLS from rats with CIA and of rat TEM cells are regulated by KCa1.1 and Kv1.3. Inhibiting KCa1.1 on FLS reduces the ability of FLS to stimulate TEM cell proliferation and migration, and inhibiting Kv1.3 on TEM cells reduces TEM cells' ability to enhance FLS expression of KCa1.1 and major histocompatibility complex class II protein, as well as stimulates their invasion. Furthermore, we show that combination therapies of selective KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 blockers are more efficacious than monotherapies at reducing signs of disease in two rat models of RA.

Conclusions:
Our results demonstrate the importance of KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 in regulating FLS and TEM cells during RA, as well as the value of combined therapies targeting both of these cell types to treat RA.


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