• ANT1

    SURFE²R N1 recordings of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) were executed on mitochondria inner membrane preparations from pigs heart

ANT1 - ADP/ATP Translocase 1 - SLC25A4

The ANT exchangers belong to the Mitochondrial Carrier (MC) Family, and to the ADP/ATP translocase sub-family (also known as adenine nucleotide translocases (ANT) or ADP/ATP carrier proteins (AAC))

There are four knowm members of the ANT family expressed in humans: SLC25A4 (ANT1), SLC25A5 (ANT2), SLC25A6 (ANT3) and SLC25A31 (ANT4) 

Members of the Adenine nucleotide translocator family (ANT) function as major constituents of the mitochondrial permeability-transition pore complex that catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ATP with cytosolic ADP. As a result of its antiporter function, the transporters maintain mitochondrial membrane potentials by regulating ADP/ATP ratios in oxidative phosphorylation.

ANT1 Background Information


ATP is synthesized from oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial matrix. However, it is required in the cytoplasm, where it can be used as the principal energy currency of the cell to power thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. After the consequent hydrolysis of ATP into ADP, ADP is required in the mitochondrial matrix, where it can be rephosphorylated to ATP. ANT1 transports the free, i.e. deprotonated, non-Magnesium, non-Calcium bound forms of ADP and ATP, in a 1:1 ratio across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Transport is fully reversible, and its directionality is governed by the concentrations of its substrates (ADP and ATP inside and outside mitochondria). ANT1 is the major ANT transporter in human cells and the archetypal protein of this family.

Data Sheet:


Human Protein:
UniProt: P12235

ADP/ATP translocase 1: ADP,ATP carrier protein 1; ADP,ATP carrier protein, heart/skeletal muscle isoform T1; Adenine nucleotide translocator 1; ANT 1; Solute carrier family 25 member 4

Highest espression in the heart, skeletal muscle, brain

ANT1 is three-fold symmetric and monomeric, with the translocation pathway for the substrate through the centre. It contains six transmembrane α-helices that form a barrel that results in a deep cone-shaped depression accessible from the outside where the substrate binds.


carboxyatractyloside, bongkrek acid, atractyloside dipotassium salt

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 2 (PEOA2); Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 12B, cardiomyopathic type (MTDPS12B); Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 12A, cardiomyopathic type (MTDPS12A): All Pathologies are caused by mutations of the ANT1 gene.

Free ADP is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, while ATP produced from oxidative phosphorylation is transported from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm, thus providing the cells with its main energy currency.

SSM-based assays on the SURFE²R instrument family

Reviews and Links

Data and Applications

Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) - Recorded on the Surfer

Icon N1   Surfer ANT traceSURFE2R N1 data and applications:

The Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria and transports, as the name suggests, either ADP or ATP alone or against each other.  Recordings were done on mitochondria inner membrane preparations from pigs heart.  Example traces display the action of ANT either in the presence of ATP, in an other experiment in the presence of ADP.


2015 - Studying Electrogenic Transporters of the SLC Family in a Parallel Way Utilizing Solid Supported Membrane Technology

Icon 96SE   SURFE²R N96 poster (a predecessor model of the SURFE²R 96SE) Biophysics 2015   logo pdf   (0.8 MB)

2015 - Organellar Transporters and Ion Channels - How to access their electrophysiology by using the SURFE2R technology and Planar Patch Clamp

Icon N1   SURFE²R N1 and   icon sp96   SyncroPatch 96 (a predecessor model of the SyncroPatch 384PE) and   icon pap   Port-a-Patch poster, GRC - Organellar Channels and Transporters 2015   logo pdf   (1.6 MB)


2017 - Discovery of benzimidazole derivatives as modulators of mitochondrial function: A potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease

icon pl  Patchliner publication in PLoS ONE (2017)

Kim T., Yang H.Y., Park B.G., Jung S.Y., Park J.H., Park K.D., Min S.J., Tae J., Yang H., Cho S., Cho S.J., Song H., Mook-Jung I., Lee J., Pae A.N.

2010 - Electrophysiology of respiratory chain complexes and the ADP-ATP exchanger in native mitochondrial membranes

Icon N1   SURFE²R ONE (a predecessor model of SURFE²R N1) publication in Biochemistry (2010)

Watzke N., Diekert K., Obrdlik P.

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