CaV2.1 | voltage-dependent, P/Q-type, alpha 1A subunit calcium channel
L-Type (CaV1.1–CaV1.4), P/Q-Type (CaV2.1), N-Type (CaV2.2), R-Type (CaV2.3), T-Type (CaV3.1–CaV3.3)
Six transmembrane alpha helices (S1–S6), total of four homologous domains make up the tetrameric alpha subunit structure
One large alpha subunit forms a functional channel, accessory subunits ( α1, α2δ, β1-4, and γ) are crucial for robust expression, they functionally modulate the alpha subunit
CaV2.1: Background Information
CaV2.1, also known as brain calcium channel I, gives rise to P and/or Q-type calcium currents and is predominantly expressed in neuronal tissue. Localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons, CaV2.1 ion channels are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release via both, vesicle release and postsynaptic calcium entry.
Pre-synaptic Ca2+ influx and neurotransmitter release in neurons, fast synaptic transmission
Migraine (FHM-1), ataxia (EA-2, SCA6), Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy, hemiplegia
β4 subunit CACNB4, α2δ subunits, calmodulin, CaBP1, VILIP, mint, CASK, Syntaxin, SNAP25
Kuratoxin, ω-agatoxin IIIA, ω-conotoxin MVIIC, ω-agatoxin-IVA, roscovitine
Patch Clamp: whole cell, room temperature
CaV channels often show a rundown phenomenon. Adequate intra- and extracellular solutions are essential for a good data quality.
Reviews and Links
- Catterall et al. (2005) International Union of Pharmacology. XLVIII. Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels. Pharmacol Rev. 57 (4): 411–25.