EAAC1 - Excitatory Amino-acid Transporter 3 - EAAT3 - SLC1A1
The family of glutamate transporters contains two subclasses:
EAAT: Exitatory amino acid transporters, dependent on an electrochemical gradient of sodium ions, with five members: EAAT1 - EAAT5
VGLUT: Vesicular glutamat transporters, not dependent on an electrochemical gradient, with four members: VGLUT1 - VGLUT3, Sialin
EAAT: The proteins contain eight transmembrane domains and can form homo- and heteromers, where each monomer is a functional unit capable of substrate permeation.
VGLUT: A putative model propose twelve transmembrane segments for VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 and ten for VGLUT3
In the brain, EAATs remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft and extrasynaptic sites via glutamate reuptake into glial cells and neurons, while VGLUTs move glutamate from the cell cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles. Glutamate transporters also transport aspartate and are present in virtually all peripheral tissues, including the heart, liver, testes, and bone.
EAAC1: Background Information
The excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1; also known as EAAT3) is a sodium-dependent neuronal uptake transporter encoded by the slc1a1 gene.
mature neurons, where it is distributed in somata and dendrites.
EAAC1 functions as a co-transporter, coupling the uphill substrate transport into the cells to the electrochemical gradients of sodium and potassium.
Dysfunction of glutamate transporters leads to increased extracellular glutamate levels, thereby causing neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.
Glutamate, aspartate, cysteine
SURFE2R transporter assays