GABAA Receptor Alpha 1 Beta 2 Gamma 2
GABA Receptors (Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels)
The GABA receptor family has further been divided into GABAA, GABAB and GABAA-ρ (also called GABAC) receptors.
As typical for Cys-loop receptors, generally four transmembrane spanning domains TM1-TM4 form one receptor subunit, five or four subunits form a pore, several heteromeric combinations are known.
GABAA: Oligomerization of typically five subunits, heteromeric combinations are known of α subunits (GABRA1 - GABRA6), β subunits (GABRB1 - GABRB3) and γ subunits (GABRG1 - GABRG3), as well as δ (GABRD), an ε (GABRE), a π (GABRP), and a θ (GABRQ). The most common type is (α1)2(β2)2(γ2), minimal requirement is the inclusion of α and β subunits.
GABAB: Heterodimer (GABBR1, GABBR2)
GABAA-ρ: Oligomerization of five subunits, heteromeric combinations of three GABAA-ρ subunits are known (GABRR1, GABRR2, GABRR3)
Regulation and Function:
GABAA and GABAA-ρ receptors are ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors); whereas GABAB receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (metabotropic receptors). All respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory transmitter in the mammalian CNS.