2018 - An allosteric mechanism of inactivation in the calcium-dependent chloride channel BEST1
Port-a-Patch publication in Journal of General Physiology (2018)
Vaisey G., Long S.B.
Journal of General Physiology (2018) doi:10.1085/jgp.201812190
Bestrophin proteins are calcium (Ca2+)-activated chloride channels. Mutations in bestrophin 1 (BEST1) cause macular degenerative disorders. Whole-cell recordings show that ionic currents through BEST1 run down over time, but it is unclear whether this behavior is intrinsic to the channel or the result of cellular factors. Here, using planar lipid bilayer recordings of purified BEST1, we show that current rundown is an inherent property of the channel that can now be characterized as inactivation. Inactivation depends on the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+, such that higher concentrations stimulate inactivation. We identify a C-terminal inactivation peptide that is necessary for inactivation and dynamically interacts with a receptor site on the channel. Alterations of the peptide or its receptor dramatically reduce inactivation. Unlike inactivation peptides of voltage-gated channels that bind within the ion pore, the receptor for the inactivation peptide is on the cytosolic surface of the channel and separated from the pore. Biochemical, structural, and electrophysiological analyses indicate that binding of the peptide to its receptor promotes inactivation, whereas dissociation prevents it. Using additional mutational studies we find that the “neck” constriction of the pore, which we have previously shown to act as the Ca2+-dependent activation gate, also functions as the inactivation gate. Our results indicate that unlike a ball-and-chain inactivation mechanism involving physical occlusion of the pore, inactivation in BEST1 occurs through an allosteric mechanism wherein binding of a peptide to a surface-exposed receptor controls a structurally distant gate.