2022 - β subunits of GABAA receptors form proton-gated chloride channels: Insights into the molecular basis
SyncroPatch 384 publication in Communications Biology (2022)
Garifulina A., Friesacher T., Stadler1 M., Zangerl-Plessl E., Ernst M., Stary-Weinzinger A., Willam A., Hering S.
Communications Biology (2022) doi:10.1038/s42003-022-03720-2
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are ligand gated channels mediating inhibition in the central nervous system. Here, we identify a so far undescribed function of β-subunit homomers as proton-gated anion channels. Mutation of a single H267A in β3 subunits completely abolishes channel activation by protons. In molecular dynamic simulations of the β3 crystal structure protonation of H267 increased the formation of hydrogen bonds between H267 and E270 of the adjacent subunit leading to a pore stabilising ring formation and accumulation of Cl- within the transmembrane pore. Conversion of these residues in proton insensitive ρ1 subunits transfers proton-dependent gating, thus highlighting the role of this interaction in proton sensitivity. Activation of chloride and bicarbonate currents at physiological pH changes (pH50 is in the range 6- 6.3) and kinetic studies suggest a physiological role in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues that express beta subunits, and thus as potential novel drug target.