2019 - Hepatitis B virus X protein induces size-selective membrane permeabilization through interaction with cardiolipin
Vesicle Prep Pro publication in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes (2019)
You D.G., Cho Y.Y., Lee H.R., Lee J.H., Yu S.J., Yoon J.H., Yoo Y.D., Kim Y.J., Lee G.Y.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes (2019) 1861(4):729-737
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) functions in a variety of cellular events during the HBV life cycle. In a previous study, we reported that the HBx protein is sufficient to induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization; however, the exact mechanism of HBx-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization has been not proposed. In this study, we report that HBx specifically targets cardiolipin (CL) and induces membrane permeabilization depending on CL concentration in mitochondrial outer membrane-mimic artificial liposomes. Interestingly, HBx-induced membrane permeabilization was enhanced by liposomes containing phosphatidylethanolamine, which plays a crucial role in forming a negative curvature on the membrane. We also show that the 68-117 region of HBx, which interacts with mitochondria, is necessary for membrane permeabilization. We examined the size of the pores formed by HBx and found that HBx permeates fluorescent dyes depending on the hydrodynamic diameter with a pore size of approximately 10 nm. The results of this study suggest that CL is necessary for HBx-induced membrane permeabilization and provide important information that suggests a new strategy for anti-HBV therapy.