2021 - The insecticide deltamethrin enhances sodium channel slow inactivation of human Nav1.9, Nav1.8 and Nav1.7
SyncroPatch 384i (a predecessor model of the SyncroPatch 384) Publication in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2021)
Bothe S.N., Lampert A.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2021) doi:10.1016/j.taap.2021.115676
The insecticide deltamethrin of the pyrethroid class mainly targets voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Deltamethrin prolongs the opening of Navs by slowing down fast inactivation and deactivation. Pyrethroids are supposedly safe for humans, however, they have also been linked to the gulf-war syndrome, a neuropathic pain condition that can develop following exposure to certain chemicals. Inherited neuropathic pain conditions have been linked to mutations in the Nav subtypes Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9. Here, we examined the effect of deltamethrin on the human isoforms Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9_C4 (chimera containing the C-terminus of rat Nav1.4) heterologously expressed in HEK293T and ND7/23 cells using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. For all three Nav subtypes, we observed increased persistent and tail currents that are typical for Nav channels modified by deltamethrin. The most surprising finding was an enhanced slow inactivation induced by deltamethrin in all three Nav subtypes. An enhanced slow inactivation is contrary to the prolonged opening caused by pyrethroids and has not been described for deltamethrin or any other pyrethroid before. Furthermore, we found that the fraction of deltamethrin-modified channels increased use-dependently. However, for Nav1.8, the use-dependent potentiation occurred only when the holding potential was increased to −90 mV, a potential at which the tail currents decay more slowly. This indicates that use-dependent modification is due to an accumulation of tail currents. In summary, our findings support a novel mechanism whereby deltamethrin enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which may, depending on the cellular resting membrane potential, reduce neuronal excitability and counteract the well-described pyrethroid effects on channel activation.